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Old December 31st, 2011 (8:49 AM). Edited December 31st, 2011 by Gymnotide.
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IVs and EVs

Introduction & Contents
When we consider a Pokemon's stats, we need to understand what makes those stats what they are. On one hand, a certain species of Pokemon will always have a set of base stats; all Salamence have a base of 135 ATK, while all Bouffalant have a base of 110 ATK. However, not all Salamence have the same actual ATK stat. We can explain this using the concept of "Individual Values" (IVs) and "Effort Values" (EVs).

What are IVs?
How do IVS work?
How do I know if my Pokemon has good IVs?
Why are IVs important?
IVs and Hidden Power

What are EVs?

What are IVs?
Individual Values or IVs for short (sometimes, but rarely called Determinant Values or DVs) are a hidden set of numbers in the game. Each Pokemon has its IVs set when that Pokemon is:
  1. obtained as an egg
  2. encountered in the wild, or
  3. received by the player within the game.
In other words, as soon as a new Pokemon is generated by the game, its IVs are set permanently. Therefore, it is impossible to change a Pokemon's IVs in-game without the use of a cheating device.

How do IVs work?
IVs determine how much a Pokemon's stats grow with each level the Pokemon rises. Each Pokemon has six values for IVS: one for each stat (HP, ATK, DEF, SpATK, SpDEF, SPE), causing each Pokemon to grow differently and have a unique distribution of stats at level 100.

From Generation III and onwards, IVs range from 0 to 31 for each stat. The higher the IV, the better that stat. For example, a level 50 Nincada with an ATK IV of 31 will have 65 overall ATK, but one with only 20 in ATK IV will have an overall of 60 ATK. At higher levels, this difference is more pronounced: at level 100, the same two Nincadas will have ATK values of 126 and 115, respectively.

If we look at the math, we can see that (at level 100), each IV point translates to an extra point in its stat: 20 ATK IVs means 20 more ATK at level 100, while 8 SPE IVs means 8 more SPE at level 100. This stat gain is gradually applied as a Pokemon approaches level 100, so you may not see the difference at lower levels.

For a more advanced grasp of how IVs work, this is the calculation needed to determine a Pokemon's stats:

Stat = [(IV + 2*B + EV/4) * (Lvl/100) + 5] * N

Where IV = Individual Value of the stat
B = Base stat for the Pokemon's species
EV = Effort Values, to be explained later
Lvl = Level of the Pokemon
N = Nature of the Pokemon, explained in another guide

Since there is no HP Nature, the calculation is slightly different:

HP = (IV + 2*B + EV/4 + 100) * (Lvl/100) + 10

Both functions for calculating stats based on IVs alone are linear.

How do I know if my Pokemon has good IVs?
In Pokemon Black & White, there is a man in the Battle Subway who can give you a gist of what your Pokemon's IVs are. First, he will tell you your Pokemon's overall total IVs. If the total is between:
  • 0 and 90, he will say "This Pokemon's potential is decent all around."
  • 91 and 120, he will say "This Pokemon's potential is above average overall."
  • 121 and 150, he will say "This Pokemon has relatively superior potential overall."
  • 151 and 186, he will say "This Pokemon has outstanding potential overall."
Then, he will tell you which stat your Pokemon's highest IV is in. After that, he will estimate that IV's value. If the IV is between:
  • 0 and 15, he will say "It's rather decent in that regard."
  • 16 and 25, he will say "It's very good in that regard."
  • 26 and 30, he will say "It's fantastic in that regard."
  • 31 (perfect), he will say "It can't be better in that regard."

Using a calculator

However, this is not exactly the most accurate way to tell a Pokemon's IVs. If you absolutely need to know a Pokemon's IVs, you can either look into the game's data, or calculate the IVs yourself using the Pokemon's known stats.

When calculating IVs, the easiest way is to use an IV calculator (click here for an example). In order to use one, you must select the Pokemon's species and fill in any information you know. IMPORTANT NOTES:
  1. To make things easier, do not allow the Pokemon to fight in any battles beforehand. If you do, you may accrue EVs, which will skew your stats. Some calculators allow you to input the EVs obtained, but most assume that the Pokemon is freshly obtained (has no EVs).
  2. The calculator is most accurate at Level 100. Either use Rare Candy or the Daycare to raise your Pokemon without using it in battles. If you do this, you can easily reset your game to before raising its level.

Why are IVs important?
Knowing your Pokemon's IVs is important because they (1) cannot be changed and (2) play a vital part in determining your Pokemon's stats. If you have a Pokemon, like Alakazam, which you want to use as a Special attacker, but it has a SpATK IV of 7, it will be far from the strongest Alakazam you can get. On the other hand, an ATK IV of 28 will also be useless to your Alakazam since it will likely not be using that stat at all. Again, 31 is often the magic number to aim for when considering IVs.

However, in some cases, you might want to have a lower IV value. For example, the move Gyro Ball benefits from having a SPE IV of 0 because it does more damage the slower your Pokemon is.

You should always figure out your IVs as soon as possible so you know if the Pokemon you just got is best suited to do its intended role--once you get the Pokemon, you are stuck with those IVs, no matter how much you train your Pokemon.

IVs and Hidden Power
0 → Fighting
1 → Flying
2 → Poison
3 → Ground
4 → Rock
5 → Bug
6 → Ghost
7 → Steel
8 → Fire
9 → Water
10 → Grass
11 → Electric
12 → Psychic
13 → Ice
14 → Dragon
15 → Dark
IVs also have an important role in determining the type and power of a certain move called Hidden Power. Hidden Power is a Special attack that can have any type except for Normal and has a base power between 30 to 70. Because of this, it is invaluable in competitive battling, allowing a Pokemon to attack with any type. Again, since both the type and power of this move are determined by a Pokemon's IVs, each Pokemon's Hidden Power is semi-unique.

Formulas & Calculations

To determine the type of your Pokemon's Hidden Power, you must use the following formula

Type = (HP + 2*ATK + 4*DEF + 8*SPE + 16*SpATK + 32*SpDEF) * 15 / 63

IMPORTANT: This formula does not take IVs directly. If the IV is odd, replace the stat in the formula with a 1; if the IV is even, replace the stat with 0. Round this number down and use the chart on the right to determine the type of your Pokemon's Hidden Power.

Then, to find out the strength of the attack, use the next formula:

Power = (HP + 2*ATK + 4*DEF + 8*SPE + 16*SpATK + 32*SpDEF) * 40 / 63 + 30

IMPORTANT: This time, divide each individual IV by 4. If the remainder is either 2 or 3, replace the stat in the formula with a 1; if not, replace the stat with 0. Round this number down to find out the strength of Hidden Power.

What are EVs?
Effort Values or EVs for short are hidden values similar to IVs; they also determine the amount a Pokemon grows in a certain stat as it rises in level. However, unlike IVs, they are not set to a value at the moment the Pokemon is obtained. Instead, they begin at 0 and work up to a maximum of 255 depending on how you train your Pokemon.

How do EVs work?
Like IVs, EVs dictate how much increase a certain stat gets per level up. Unlike IVs, however, they follow a much simpler formula: for every 4 EVs in a stat, that stat raises by a whole point. Furthermore, since 255 is not divisible by 4, the best number of EVs to max a stat is 252--this will increase the selected stat by 63 whole points.

Again, EVs run from 0 to 255. Each Pokemon can only have a maximum of 510 overall EVs distributed among the six stats (HP, ATK, DEF, SpATK, SpDEF, SPE). Therefore, you have less available EVs than is needed to max every stat. When training a Pokemon, it is important to allot EV points to the stats that you most need, whether it is to maximize your offenses (a Pokemon like Garchomp enjoys a full 252 EVs in ATK) or to balance out your defenses (Cohagrigus has an unusually high base DEF, so it enjoys adding more points to SpDEF to make it more well-rounded).

Like IVs, Pokemon benefit from EVs at a gradual rate. For example, if a Pokemon is trained at level 1 to reach 252 SpDEF EVs, it will not gain +63 in SpDEF right away. It must reach level 100 before having the full bonus. Growth due to EVs is somewhat sporadic (some levels, you may gain +10 in a stat while others you may gain just +1).

Finally, in Generation V only, the benefit from EVs are calculated after every battle. In prior generations, level 100 Pokemon would not be able to benefit from EVs because they were incapable of levelling up. However, this is not longer a problem (and EV training level 100 Pokemon is completely viable).

EVs through battling
EVs can be accrued in a variety of ways--the most common is through battling.

When a Pokemon receives experience points, it will receive 1, 2, or 3 EVs in a certain stat(s), specific to the Pokemon defeated, regardless of its level. Generally speaking, stronger Pokemon species will give more EVs when defeated. For example, any defeated Bidoof will always yield 1 HP EV while any Furret will yield 2 SPE EVs. Some Pokemon will give EVs in more than one stat, such as Venusaur, which yields 2 SpATK and 1 SpDEF. When EV training a Pokemon, take note of what types of enemies your Pokemon battles.

Also note that the Pokemon will gain the full amount of EVs no matter how the experience points were gained. This includes when a Pokemon receives experience after switching out, or through the use of Exp. Share. Consider the following example:
  • You are battling Magikarp. You sent out Garchomp.
  • You retreat and send out Bellsprout. Magikarp uses Splash.
  • Bellsprout uses Vine Whip and OHKOs Magikarp.
  • Bellsprout, Garchomp, and your Tynamo (holding Exp. Share) all receive experience.
  • All three gain the full amount of 1 SPE EV.
NOTE: If a battle does not reward experience, no EVs will be distributed!

→ PokeRus

Moreover, the amount of EVs obtained through battling can be increased through a variety of means. The first is PokeRus, a rare disease that can be obtained in-game. It has a 3 / 65536 chance of being randomly generated on any Pokemon you obtain, but can also be redistributed through Pokemon events.

You can find out if you have PokeRus if you go to the Pokemon Center and Nurse Joy remarks: "Oh... It looks like your Pokémon may be infected with the Pokérus. Little is known about the Pokérus, except that it is a microscopic life-form that attaches to Pokémon. While infected, Pokémon are said to grow exceptionally well." After that, a purple PokeRus icon () will appear on the Pokemon's status page.

When a Pokemon has PokeRus, it will double the amount of EVs it gains from battling for it and it alone. If we revisit the example above and say that Bellsprout has PokeRus, it would receive 2 EVs in SPE while Garchomp and Tynamo would only receive 1 each.

PokeRus lasts for a maximum of 15 days on a Pokemon if it is left in the player's team, but it will remain on the Pokemon indefinitely if it is left in the PC. During the first two days after a Pokemon gets PokeRus, it can infect up to two other Pokemon after exiting a battle if those Pokemon were next to the PokeRus Pokemon in the party. After a Pokemon recovers from PokeRus, it can never get PokeRus again.

Power Items

There are also items that increase the number of EVs obtained through battling. They are listed below:

Macho Brace: doubles all EVs obtained.
Power Weight: adds a bonus +4 HP EVs per defeated Pokemon
Power Bracer: adds a bonus +4 ATK EVs per defeated Pokemon.
Power Belt: adds a bonus +4 DEF EVs per defeated Pokemon.
Power Lens: adds a bonus +4 SpATK EVs per defeated Pokemon.
Power Band: adds a bonus +4 SpDEF EVs per defeated Pokemon.
Power Weight: adds a bonus +4 SPE EVs per defeated Pokemon.

All these items are cumulative with the benefit from PokeRus, so if our Bellsprout had both PokeRus and Macho Brace, it would gain a total of 2 * 2 * 1 SPE EVs (4 SPE EVs) for defeating Magikarp. If Bellsprout was holding Power Lens, it would gain 1 SPE EV plus 4 SpATK EV, doubled to 2 SPE and 8 SpATK.

You obtain the Macho Brace from a man in Nimbasa City, near the eastern gate. All the other Power Items are obtained using 16 BP in the Battle Subway (Gear Station).

EVs through items

You have no idea how hard tables are to work with using the allowed BBCode. I made this image myself.

EVs can also be modified through the use of items. Vitamins and Feathers will increase your EVs while special Berries will decrease your EVs. However, the bonuses from these items are not affected by PokeRus, the Macho Brace, or Power Items.
  • Vitamins (+10) will add 10 to an EV, but only if that EV's value is between 0 and 99.
  • Feathers (+1) will add 1 to an EV.
  • EV Berries (-10) will decrease any EV by 10 or set the EV to 0 if its value is less than 10. In past generations, EV Berries would decrease the EV to 100 if its value was anything above 100. This is no longer true for Generation V.
Vitamins can be obtained for 9800 from Shopping Mall Nine (on Route 9), 1 BP in the Battle Subway, or found on the ground / given as gifts throughout the world. Feathers can be obtained by standing under a Flying-Pokemon's Shadow Phenomenon on the Driftveil Drawbridge or Marvelous Bridge. Berries are obtained through the Dream World.

EV training
Coming soon.

Stunfisk / Palpitoad (+2 HP)
Ducklett (+1 HP)
Audino (+2 HP)
Victini (+3 HP)

Patrat / Lillipup (+1 ATK)

Durant (+2 DEF)
Venipede / Sewaddle (+1 DEF)

Litwick / Elgyem (+1 SpATK)

Frillish (+1 SpDEF)

Basculin (+2 SPE)
Swanna (+2 SPE)


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Khaled Hosseini

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