Reposted with edits so nobody has to wade through multiple multi-year-old posts with errors and annoying formatting in it and all! If you see any mistakes or wish to suggest or contribute changes or additions, PM myself and/or Astinus!
Types of Poetry: This post!
Poetry FAQ: 2nd post
Poetry Reviewing Guide: 3rd post
Advice for Writing Poetry: 4th post
Types of Poetry
Written by Kyosuke and Scytheteen
Sonnet additions by JX Valentine
I have decided to post a little summary of the different types of poetry. There are plenty of others, but these are the most common ones. Each comes with a link to wikipedia for further examples and explanation - do check them out!
Haiku: A short, Japanese type of poetry that is usually associated with nature or has a seasonal reference. No rhyming occurs in it, and is only three lines long, with five syllables making up the first and last line, and three in the middle, totalling seventeen syllables.
eg. The dying plant bends (5 syllables) And drips its dew to the ground (7 syllables) It falls like a tear (5 syllables)
Tanka: Another Japanese form that relies on the number of syllables, and lines with no rhyming except the forth and fifth line. Part of a genre of Japanese Poetry called 'Waka', and is the most popular of it.
eg. I have my own place (5 syllables) Where I can go for hours (7 syllables) I go there to write (5 syllables) It is not difficult to find (7 syllables) (rhyming) Search within your heart and mind. (7 syllables) (rhyming)
Acrostic: A type of poetry that spells out a word with the first letters vertically, with that word typically serving as the theme or an important aspect of the poem. It could be about anything, just as long as the first letter of the word spells something out.
School Catching up on homework I forgot to finish Hurry on to school before I'm late! Observing the class as the teacher speaks about the day Opening my backpack to get my pen and pencils Lingering home after a grueling day of learning
Cinquain: Another type that has a total of five lines, that relates to a topic. There are five things that must go in a cinquain, one for each line in this order: the title, a description of your topic, a action relating to it, your feeling towards it, and another title that relates to the first one. A certain number of syllables per line is also a feature of the cinquain, which varies from form to form. For instance, the usual 'Crapsey' form is as so:
eg. Newbies (Title) (2 syllables) active, friendly (Description) (4 syllables) posting, viewing, spamming (action) (6 syllables) Wonders what will become of them (feeling) (8 syllables) Members (Title) (2 syllables)
Free Verse: A poem that simple does not have any sort of "rules" applied to it. They do not need a specific number of syllables per line, nor do they need to rhyme, and so forth.
eg. What do the oceans do at night? Do they tease and tickle the bottom of boats? Do they ripple away in fright? Or are the beaches like coats That keep them still and quiet And once the day breaks and it's breakfast time Do the oceans wish for some other diet than fish?
Sonnets: A poem that consists of 14 lines and has a strict rhyming schme and structure, which varies from sonnet type to sonnet type - for instance a Shakespearean, or English, sonnet consists of 14 lines, each line containing ten syllables. Iambic pentameter is often employed for sonnets.
eg. Why do we continue to kill in various ways? Why do we waste time with jealousy and hate? Why not take advantage of the current date? Stop the violence now, don't let it grow. Love is important, a fact that we all know. As the fires of hate continue to burn The hands of clock continue to turn. No one can find reason to our madness today. The gift of life is extremely short Demand no more violence of any sort! With kindness, life's quality we can improve! As those hands on the clock continue to move. Day becomes night and night becomes day The hands of the clock keep ticking away.
More on sonnets by JX Valentine!
Technically speaking, there's three types of sonnets. All of them follow iambic pentameter (five iambs -- or sets of one stressed and one unstressed syllable -- to each line) and have a particular rhyme scheme. However, it's how those lines are arranged that makes all the difference.
Petrarchan sonnets (also called Italian sonnets) consist of one octave (or two quatrains) and one sestet. Thus, the sonnet usually follows the rhyme scheme ABBAABBA CDECDE (or CDCDCD), where all of the A lines rhyme with each other, all of the B lines rhyme, and so forth. It usually tells gives some sort of philosophical statement about an ideal. You can see an example here.
Originally Posted by From the link
"On His Being Arrived to the Age of Twenty-three"
How soon hath Time, the subtle thief of youth,
Stolen on his wing my three and twentieth year!
My hasting days fly on with full career,
But my late spring no bud or blossom shew'th.
Perhaps my semblance might deceive the truth,
That I to manhood am arrived so near,
And inward ripeness doth much less appear,
That some more timely-happy spirits indu'th.
Yet be it less or more, or soon or slow,
It shall be still in strictest measure even
To that same lot, however mean or high,
Toward which Time leads me, and the will of Heaven.
All is, if I have grace to use it so,
As ever in my great Task-master's eye.
There's two types of English sonnets, but the most common is the Shakespearean sonnet (or Elizabethan sonnet). Both types of English sonnets follow similar formats, which contain three quatrains and one couplet. Thus, its rhyme scheme is usually ABAB CDCD EFEF GG.
You most often see Shakespearean sonnets dealing out the same sort of philosophical statement as a Petrarchan, but Shakespeareans usually like to connect it to some sort of object, such as a toaster. The quatrains are spent describing the toaster and what it does, whereas the couplet connects the toaster's function to life.
If you want an example of a Shakespearean sonnet, your best bet is actually looking at one of Shakespeare's sonnets.
Originally Posted by From the link
Shakespeare's Sonnet CXXX
My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun,
Coral is far more red than her lips red.
If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun,
If hair be wires, black wires grow on her head.
I have seen roses damasked, red and white,
But no such roses see I in her cheeks,
And in some perfumes is there more delight
Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks.
I love to hear her speak, yet well I know
That music hath a far more pleasing sound,
I grant I never saw a goddess go,
My mistress when she walks treads on the ground.
And yet, by heaven, I think my love as fair
As any she belied with false compare.
Lastly, you've got Spenserian sonnets, which are basically Shakespearean sonnets following a different rhyme scheme. Instead of the same ABAB CDCD scheme, it follows this: ABAB BCBC CDCD EE, a scheme where the last line of the quatrain before rhymes with the first line of the quatrain after. A good example is here.
Originally Posted by From the link
Milton! thou shouldst be living at this hour:
England hath need of thee: she is a fen
Of stagnant waters: altar, sword, and pen,
Fireside, the heroic wealth of hall and bower,
Have forfeited their ancient English dower
Of inward happiness. We are selfish men;
Oh! raise us up, return to us again;
And give us manners, virtue, freedom, power.
Thy soul was like a Star, and dwelt apart;
Thou hadst a voice whose sound was like the sea:
Pure as the naked heavens, majestic, free,
So didst thou travel on life's common way,
In cheerful godliness; and yet thy heart
The lowliest duties on herself did lay.
Rap: Yes - even rap is a type of poetry. It started in the 1970's and it mainly told what life was like for those while growing up.
eg. Don't wait to beat the street Stay in school and keep your seat The entire eight parts of speech Will your reading, writing, and speaking teach!
eg. There once was a man named Bob Who was out looking for a great job He really needed money to feed pets His cat's name was Tiger His dog's name was Ted. His pets were hungry most of the day The animals were hungry - they couldn't play Bob had been laid off for a month or two There was plenty of work that Bob wouldn't do. Bob was really hungry. His stomach was an empty tank He decided to go rob a local bank. He walked through the door and looked around He pointed his gun and yelled "Get down" Bob took the money and headed for the door. If only he had seen the officer in the store. The policeman came out with a shout Bob thought for a second and then pulled his gun out One shot, two shots and with a deafening sound Poor old Bob's body hit the ground. With his last breath He thought back to his pets He sure hoped Tiger and Ted Would have a great life after he was dead!
Diamonte poems: Diamonte is just what it sounds like, diamond shaped poems, that are written (or typed) in seven lines. They resemble cinquain type poetry, but with no rhyming. Each line consists of seven parts - for instance:
Safe, caring (2 descriptions)
Loving, sharing, talking (Three "ing" words)
Friendship, food, car, travels (Four words about the topic) Living, loving, enjoying (Three "ing" words)
Joyous, adventurous (2 descriptions)
Family (Another word that relates to the subject)
Limerick - A limerick is humorous nonsense verse consisting of a triplet and couplet, making it a five line poem. Lines one, two, and five are the triplet and rhyme. Lines three and four form a rhyming couplet.
There was an old man of Nantucket, who kept all his cash in a bucket; But his daughter, named Nan, Ran away with a man, And as for the bucket- Nantucket
Ballad- a ballad is a form of verse, often a narrative set to music. It is usually very structured and typically has the second and fourth lines rhyming with each other.
The Ballad of Marian Blacktree
Refrain: Oh, do you know the mountain road That leads to yonder peak? A few will walk that trail alone, Their dreams they go to seek.
(1) One such was Marian Blacktree, A lowly sheperdess, And courting her was Tom, the swain, Who loved her nonetheless.
(2) A thought occurred to Marian While watching o'er her sheep, And gazing at the mountain thus She nodded off to sleep.
(3) That night she came to Tom and said She longed to know the sky. "I'm weary of this valley, love, I want to learn to fly!"
(4) Poor Thomas did not want to leave, This valley was all he knew. So when she turned and left him there Her heart, it broke in two.
(5) Her faithful swain did track her, All night the trail led on, And finally at the mountain top He looked, but she was gone.
(6) As morning broke and lit the sky An eagle he did see: It circled 'round him thrice and cried. He knew now she was free.
(following by Scytheteen)
A list poem is exactly what it sounds like: a poem composed of a list. What makes a list poem different than an ordinary list is the element of emotions. Often the emotional "punch" of a list poem is contained in the last line.
Still Life With Buddy
Mahogany table top
fluted crystal vase
sprig of forget-me-nots
photo of Buddy dressed to kill
leaning against his ashes
See how the last has that "punch"? That's what your goal is when writing in list form.
An alphabet poem is similar to an acrostic, but instead of writing a wrord down the left-had side of your page, write the alphabet and then use each letter as the first letter of the first word of each line.
Accepted the fact he was going to die
Blamed himself for being sick
Considered suicide for more than a minute
Dreamed he'd die at thirty-two
Entered a room without turning heads
Forgave himself for being sick
Gave up hope they'd find a cure
Hid his lesions with band-aids or makeup
Injected his meds without making a face
Joked around about losing his hair
Knew how much I really loved him
Lied to anyone about how he got sick
Made up his mind about reincarnation
Named his last T cell Bert or Ernie
Obeyed his doctors when he knew better
Pretended he wasn't extremely afraid
Quit trying to write even when he went blind
Regretted the way he had lived out his life
Shook hands with the priest who wanted to save him
Told anyone he was ready to die
Understood why they hate us so much
Vowed to be good in exchange for more time
Wondered why him and note somebody else
X-ed out the names of his friends who had died
Yelled out loud when the pain got too great
Zoomed out of this world without changing my life
A found poem is simply a poem that you find when you lest expect it. The example given below is a poem that the writer "found" while driving along a highway. Keep your eyes open: poetry can be found anywhere and everywhere! You just have to look for it.
Rough Road Ahead
Ticketed Passengers Only
No Baggage Beyond This Point
Stay In Lane
Children At Play
Two-voice poetry is written for two people to preform, if read out loud. The poetry usually has two columns-one for each person who is reading the poem. Each person reading the poem reads the text in one of the columns. Sometimes, the poet wants the readers to say something at the same time; so the poet writes the words on the same line in each column. These poems often sound like a dialogue for each poem.
Just like all poetry, poems for two voices need an idea. Nature makes great subject matter for poetry for two voices, but two voices can also be written about school, current events, or events in literature.
We were hurt We were hurt
our families were killed our families were killed
because of our beliefs because of our beliefs
We are We are
The year was around The year was around
London Boggs, governor of
Adolf Hitler, leader of the
thought he knew it all thought he knew it all
He wanted the perfect He wanted the perfect
We long to live in a place
that is free
We live in America land of
but how is this free?
They knocked on our doors They knocked on our doors
We were We were
deported to camps
asked if we believed-
if we denied the church
we were set free-
no one did
My husband was taken to My husband was taken to
work in the fields
set on fire
shot to death
My baby My baby
was taken to the gas chambers
was beaten to death, but
before he died they would
smash his head in
My child My child
sent to the gas chambers
she was too weak
beaten but not killed
so he could remember
I lived through it all I lived through it all
my only question is my only question is
The ode is a type of poetry where you are giving praise to a person, object, feeling, place, or anything else you can think of! Usually in an ode, you are directing the poem towards the object, as if talking to it and thanking it.
Each line of this poem answers on of the W questions (who, what, where, when and why). Each line may be a word, phrase, or clause, but be consistent in choice throughout the five lines. The order of the questions may changed to suit a purpose, to give a more succinct meaning, or in order to impart a more exciting climax.
The villanelle is a very difficult form of poetry. It is a highly specialized form and is difficult to write without seeming trite or repetitive. it is a French Verse form with 19 lines divided into 5 tercets and one quatrain. Two rhymes or repeated lines predominate. This often gives the poem a cyclical feeling.
Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night
Do not go gentle into that good night,
Old age should burn and rave at close of day;
Rage, rage against the dying the of the light.
Though wise men at their end know dark is right,
Because their words had forked no lightning they
Do not go gentle into that good night.
Good men, the last wave by, crying how bright
Their frail deeds might have danced in a green bay,
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
Wild men who caught and sang the sun in flight,
And learn, too late, they grieved it on its way,
Do not go gentle into that good night.
Grave men, near death, who see with blinding sight
Blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay,
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
And you, my father, there on the sad height,
Curse, bless, me now with your fierce tears, I pray.
Do not go gentle into that good night.
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
A very difficult type of poetry indeed, but it can be done!
Well, here's a bit of an edited version of the Poetry FAQ we all know and love. XD
Q: What is 'flow' and how do I know if my poem has it?
Well, when people say "Your poem's flow should be fixed", they are saying that when you read the poem, it sounds disfigured and choppy. Almost as though it isn't finished. To be exact, 'flow' is just how smoothly your poem fits with itself when you read it. If your poem has several different things going on at once, but you don't have transitions there help guide the poem along, your poem is considered to have no flow.
Q: Does my poem have to rhyme?
Most certainly not. A poem is anything that comes from the heart. Rhyming is never a component to writing that is absolutely necessary. Some prefer to rhyme, while others use good word choices to make their poems have a greater impact on the reader.
Q: Is there a length limit to poems?
Your poem and/or song write can be of any length or format. Some people prefer the short-and-sweet approach, where their poems are about one stanza long, yet the poem still gets it's meaning out clearly. Others make incredibly long poems which have greater impacts on the reader in most cases, but this does not mean a longer poem is a better one. You can always revise and revise your poems to make them better.
Q: What do I do about punctuation?
When someone reviews your poems, they might say that you need a period here or a comma there. In case they don't really specify what they mean, here's what they're talking about. ^.~
Now, when writing a poem, punctuation is a large factor of good poem etiquette. You need to have some form of punctuation at the end of each and every line. Here's an example:
I saw in the forest, a demon take flight, Pounding its wings with all of its might. The demon, it soared, just overhead, Rather than running, I gazed instead.
I could hear its heart, steady and strong, Helping it forth as its wings pulled it along. The demon was old, yet he didn't know, For the world is changing, to and fro.
As I gazed upon the beautiful sight, Seeing this monster take its last flight. I thought to myself, how could this be, That this monster had come to me?
With one last plunge, the demon fell, Diving into the very depths of Hell. As I gazed upon this demon's flight, I thought to myself, what a beautiful sight.
Notice the commas and periods at the end of each line. This not only shows proper usage of grammar but it also increases the flow's quality as well as the overall appearance of the poem.
Well, there's some information for you. If you have anything else to suggest, PM it to bobandbill or Astinus! Well, keep writing those awesome poems everyone! ;D
I thought I might post this to help people who are not sure how to review poetry. (If you have an idea of a good way to review poetry, than please PM it.)
When reviewing poetry there are a few things you can comment on:
- A good poem does not use cliche upon cliche (there are exceptions however, such as when the cliche used sarcastically, or when used properly). Examples of cliches are: lost paradise, hand in hand, or so forth.
- look at how natural the poem sounds. If a strange, uncommon word is used, then it may not sound natural. Same with oddly worded lines, often used to create a rhyme, or keep in rhythm. An example of this is the following:
His blood is frozen and curdled with fright.
Notice how curdled does not make sense, and is used to keep in rhythm. Meaning is far more important than rhyme and meter. Even in poetry, grammar can be important, especially when double negatives are used to keep in meter.
As for actually reviewing, keep the above list in mind.
I prefer to review each stanza, and pick out the cliches and odd lines, but we all have different ways of reviewing.
When giving advice for poems, be tactful, and don't rewrite it for them. You might want to make suggestions for replacing an irregular word, but know that it is not your poem.
Also keep in mind that meaning is always something you should comment on. Pointing out cliches and odd lines is not the only thing one can do. If the meaning is very stereotyped and rather shallow, it does not mean the poem is bad, but it is worth commenting on. Sometimes a poem could have a great meaning but might not be written very well.
It is possible that someone may have a great idea but may not be able to write it. Don't bash poems for not making any sense - it is always possible that the meaning is simply not clear, and it's not good form to flame in any case.
Naturally, be civil to others in your reviews too!
The Art of Poetry: I don't know what to tell you here. Poetry is personal to both the poet and the reader and cannot truly be defined. I'm hardly an authority on the subject, but here is what I believe: Poetry is almost entirely emotional. Thus, a poem should inspire an emotion in the reader, and reflect the emotional state of the poet at the time of writing it. I also believe that poetry cannot be forced, in a way that poetry rules the poet (or, at least, the IDEA of the poem does) and that it can only be written when the muse strikes, beats you upside the head, stabs you, or ties you up and leaves you for dead in your basement, whatever you prefer.
Now, onto the other stuff. First, a brief talk about...
Revision: Yes, I know. I sound like your English teacher. Nasty, eh? Who wants to revise? The answer is relatively simple. Your readers do. Good poetry is not like taking diction from the divine, whatever you may consider that to be. Good poetry takes time, effort and a careful consideration of every word. Remember, you don't have as much space as in a story, making every word count all the more (unless you're writing an epic, in which case I commend you). After your basic spelling and grammar checks, you might revise another ten times and only change one or two words each time. You also might eliminate entire stanzas, scrap the entire thing or rewrite it from the ground up. In short, if your poem is reviewed you should be able to defend everything you have done. The critic might be right, but it shouldn't be an automatic thing. You should make your poem stronger with each successive draft, more interesting to read and more emotional.
Point 1: Word Choice This is a major problem I see in many of the poems posted here. The language simply doesn't interest me. In general, it is repetitive and bland, or in some cases annoyingly over-the-top to avoid the former problem. I cannot emphasize how carefully your words must be chosen to be meaningful both to yourself and to the reader.
Point 2: Mechanics Your poetry should be free of punctuation, spelling, and grammatical errors. Period.
Point 3: Rhyming, Rhythm, and Meter Poetry can rhyme. It can have beautiful pentameter, or hexameter, or whatever and have a word-perfect rhythm. It can also do none of these things and still be poetry. What is most important is that your poetry feels natural. If you sacrifice meaning, or use limited and repetitive words for the sake of rhyme your work seems very amateurish. If the rhyme or rhythm come, they come. Don't make them.
Subsection A: A Brief Guide to Poetic Meter Consider the most basic meter, iambic pentameter. This consists of five poetic feet per line. A poetic foot consists of two syllables, either unstressed-stressed or stressed-unstressed. The former is considered iambic, the latter is trochaic. Thus, a line of poetry written in iambic pentameter would consist of ten syllables, five unstressed and five unstressed with the unstressed coming first. This is the most popular meter because it closely mirrors natural English speech.
Trochaic generally has a much more emphatic and forceful nature and can be much more difficult to write in.
Of course, pentameter is not the only meter. It runs from (at least, in terms of easy writing) tetrameter (six syllables, three poetic feet) to septameter (fourteen syllables, seven poetic feet). So, by way of example, a line of iambic quatrameter would read:
Within the ages of time lay
Subsection B: The Difference Between Meter and Rhythm This is a somewhat abstract point for two more concrete things. Rhythm and meter are indeed linked. When governed by a set of rules, rhythm becomes meter, however, if you switch meters, or write in no particular meter consistently, your piece has a rhythmic structure free of meter.
Point 4: The Necessity of Imagery This is another pet peeve of mine. Poetry that lacks strong imagery simply isn't interesting to read. Images, particularly the more natural, visceral ones have great power to influence emotion. Consider the following lines of poetry.
It was morning shared between us two.
You held me, and I loved you.
Above the horizon crept the sun.
His heated fire lacked the passion of your arms.
Now, I admit that neither set is particularly good poetry, but the latter provides a stronger reaction, no? It conveys the scene and the details of it without saying, "This is what I mean. Here." That simply does not influence the reader in a meaningful way. Cheesy example, but did having blatant messages of free will crammed down your throat every 30 seconds in The Matrix: Reloaded convince you of your own freedom or was that something that a simple image of defiance could have shown you and had a much more profound effect?
Point 5: Playing with Language Yes, I know I spoke strongly in favor of mechanics earlier, but there are times when simply stepping a little outside the box can have a very intriguing, positive effect on your work. An odd sentence structure or image can help draw the reader into the poem. Consider the following lines from Flames by Billy Collins.
as his paws, the size
of catcher's mitts,
crackle into the distance.
Now, grammatically, "stretch" would make more sense. However, the onomatopoeia gives the image of dry grass and tinder underfoot, and alludes to the title, and the fire that seems inevitable. Try being a little playful sometimes instead of rgidly adhering to every inane rule of language. (Yes, yes, I know, I know. I spoke against this before, but consider this an exception.) You'd be surprised at the impact this can have.
All right, I'm done lecturing now. I hope reading this has been moderately valuable to you. Most of all, I hope you continue writing poetry and improving. I know I have a long ways to go myself. Thank you for your time. As a last note, I suggest you read the following poets:
Percy Bysshe Shelly
George Gordon (Lord Byron)
Samuel Taylor Coleridge